About Citing Sources
This guide is to help you when you cite the sources used in your research to
- give credit to those whose ideas & words you are using
- distinguish the ideas of others from your own
- make your argument stronger by showing you've done research
- allow your readers to verify your claims
- direct quotations must always be placed in quotation marks
- follow the assigned or preferred styles to determine the exact placement author, title, publisher, date, etc.
- failure to cite, or to cite in a proper style, can result in a request for a rewrite, reduced grade, or a failing grade
Recommendation: use a software program to assist with citation content and style, such as EndNote or Zotero:
- to help collect the relevant information for attribution
- to help format the resulting citation in the proper style
- to help you reuse and reformat references as needed
- to help to organize research.
(Free to download and use!)
A. The two styles most commonly used are SBL and Chicago style. It is important to note that SBL style suggests that users check the Chicago Manual if a question is not specifically answered in the SBL Handbook.
SBL Handbook of Style: THEOLOGY REF. PN147 .S26 1999
(available online for members of SBL)
A student supplement for SBL Handbook (edited by Candler's own Dr. Joel LeMon) available online
Chicago Manual of Style: THEOLOGY REF Z253 .U69 2003.
--available online to members of the Emory community.
Turabian, Kate. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: THEOLOGY REF. LB2369 .T8 2007.
--a modified form of the Chicago style
--most commonly used for papers that will not be published, such as student work.
A. Consult the Chicago Manual of Style to see if that item type is addressed, or consult a librarian for further help.
EndNote for Bibliographies
- is a personal citation/bibliography manager
- runs on Macintosh and Windows computers
- helps researchers organize references in a database
- can be used to format citations and create bibliographies automatically in a word processor
- free to download EndNote X2 or X3 via Software Express
- Make sure that you've opened the library with the items of interest.
- Select Tools —> Subject Bibliography
- Select the field that you'd like to sort by. Common options include Author or Year. If you've been assigning resources to custom groups, you can also use a group to form your bibliography. Your library will be sorted by the selected criteria, and you can then highlight the items you'd like to include in the bibliography.
- Select Print Preview to make sure the bibliography looks the way you would like. Save your bibliography; the default extension is .rtf — this will pull up as a Microsoft Word document if you have that program installed on your machine.
- Import Filters: Most databases allow for exporting directly to EndNote.
- Connection Files: use EndNote to search EUCLID, WorldCat, the ATLA Religion database, and other sources for books and articles.
More complete directions - including how to create an independent bibliography by clicking on items and exporting them.
Online Style Guides
Zotero for Bibliographies
Use Zotero to:
- store citations to books, articles, essays, and websites that easily shared with anyone, including a faculty member
- store links to research documents on your personal workstations
- write and organize research notes on these resources
- categorize resources for inclusion in the writing process
- create citations and bibliographies for your research paper
See the Zotero Research Guide for more information and to download the latest versions.
- Download and install the web browser Firefox on your computer.
- To better understand what Zotero can do, It is recommended that you watch the Zotero Tour (z - tour), although this is not necessary.
- Download Zotero 2.0, and follow the installation instructions.
- Visit the Word Processor Plug-ins page, to integrate Zotero with Microsoft Word or Open Office.
- After you restart your computer, the Zotero icons should appear in the Word toolbar (on the “Add-Ins” tab in Word 2007). Here are directions for use of the plug-in.
- Zotero comes with standard citation styles already loaded. To see these, and to add additional styles (e.g., Society of Biblical Literature), go to the Zotero style repository.
Options Beyond Endnote & Zotero
Options beyond Endnote and Zotero:
Mac users will want to consider BookEnds and Sente, while Windows users can choose Biblioscape; there are a number of online options as well.